The history of civil engineering is traced back to the creation of mankind. From prehistory, man used to build shelter using stones and tree trunk to protect them from environment. As the population grew, the need for proper hydraulic and transportation system became the need of time. After the invention of wheel in 3500 BC, rapid development in transportation sector took place. People grouped themselves in tribes and states, thus needing defense system to protect their terrain from rival.
Initially, the people who work for defense and development of state were named as Military Engineer. Their duties were to design fortress, bridges, dams, reservoirs, roads and shelters. Mostly these tasks were of civil work which they performed manually. The large construction of Pyramids between 2700-2500 BC, the Qanat water management system in 447-438 BC and the Great Wall of China in 200 BC are few major construction of that time that is still in existence.
The Separation of Civil Engineering
In the 18th century, Civil Engineering is considered as a separate field than military. A separate workforce for these non-military and civil works needs to be created. The idea was originated by the designer of Eddystone Lighthouse, England, who proclaimed himself as first Civil Engineer. John Smeaton formed and led a group of his fellows, and discussed technical aspect of the field of Civil Engineering.
Started building the Civil Engineering Organization
The first technical organization of Civil Engineering was formed in 1716 in France with the name Bridge and Highway Corps which transform into the National School of Bridges and Highways in 1747. Civil Engineering is recognized as a proper profession in 1828. Norwich College in the USA is considered as the first civil engineering college. The first degree of civil engineering was awarded in 1835 by Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, USA. The first national society of Civil Engineering was founded in 1852 named as American Society of Civil Engineers. The discipline of civil engineering developed tremendously in the 19th and 20th century.
Civil Engineering became booming
Numbers of surveying and construction equipment were created in the 19th century, which made ease and rapid development. The concept of Building Information Modeling (BIM) in late 20th century opened a new door to rapid technology. Building designing and drawing software were developed in the 21st century based on the concept of Building Information Modeling. Plenty of building software has been made to name a few STAAD, Procon, Rivet, AutoCAD, Eagle, Maya, 3d Max, Fusion etc. They timely updated versions as per requirement. The development of estimation and scheduling software by Microsoft and Primavera improves the quality of construction. Researchers have been made to workout strength of material and innovation in construction materials.
Branches of Civil Engineering
Due to its large scope, the discipline of civil engineering is further divided into sub-branches. These are Quality Engineering, Structural Engineering, Transportation Engineering, Water Resource Engineering, Geotechnical Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Construction, Urban and Town Planning, Costing, Fabrication and Project Management. Earthquake engineering is another latest field after frequently occurring calamities.
Quality Engineering is the most important
Quality Engineering is the fanciest field of civil engineering because of its vital function around its scope. The life and safety of building and structure lie behind the hands of a quality engineer which specializes quality engineering. And therefore, it ensures and entails the welfare of humankind that dwells those huge sorts of structures.
Today, Civil Engineering is the top most profession around the globe. Technologies enable it to be a white collar job. Engineers can predict and scale everything of any complex and gigantic project on the desktop in the office cubicle.
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