We sometimes want to find the definitions of engineering or construction terms. This could be a good idea to easily find out the engineering or construction term that an engineer would like to know. Here are few important definitions that you might want to consider.
1. Aggregate – Granular material such as sand, gravel, crushed stone, crushed hydraulic-cement concrete or iron blast-furnace slug, used with a hydraulic cementing medium to produce either concrete or mortar.
2. Bleeding – The autogenous flow of mixing water within, or its emergence from, newly placed concrete or mortar; caused by the settlement of the solid materials within the mass.
3. Block, Concrete – A concrete masonry unit, usually containing hollow cores.
4. Blowholes – Small regular or irregular cavities, usually not exceeding 15mm in diameter, resulting from entrapment of air bubbles in the surface of formed concrete during placement and consolidation.
5. California Bearing Ratio (CBR) – The ratio of the force per unit area required to penetrate a soil mass with a 3 in² (1940 mm²) circular piston at the rate of 0.05 in (1.3 mm) per min to the force required for corresponding penetration of a standard material; the ration is usually determined at 0.1 in (2.5mm) penetration.
6. Cement, Ordinary Portland – The term used in the UK and elsewhere, to designate of equivalent of American normal Portland cement or Type I cement; commonly abbreviated OPC.
7. Cast-in-place concrete – Concrete is deposited and allowed to harden in the place where it is required to be in the completed structure, as opposed to precast concrete.
8. Chamfer – A flat surface made by cutting of the edge or corner of the block of wood or other material.
9. Column – A member used primarily to support axial compression loads and with a height of at least three times its least lateral dimensions.
10. Compaction – A compaction test is a soil quality test used to assess the level of compaction which can occur in the soil on a site.
11. Compressive strength – The measured maximum resistance of a concrete or mortar specimen to axial compressive loading; expressed as force per unit cross-sectional area; or the specified resistance used in design calculations.
12. Concrete – A composite material that consist essentially of a binding medium within which are embedded particles or fragments of aggregates, usually a combination of fine aggregates and coarse aggregates; in Portland-cement concrete, the binder is a mixture of Portland cement and water, with or without admixture.
13. Cover – In reinforced concrete, the least distance between the surface of embedded reinforcement and the outer surface of the concrete.
14. Curing – Action taken to maintain moisture and temperature conditions in a freshly placed cementitious mixture to allow hydraulic cement hydration and (if applicable) pozzolanic reactions to occur so that the potential properties of the mixture to develop.
15. Dense Concrete – Concrete containing a minimum voids.
16. Drying Shrinkage – Shrinkage resulting from loss o moisture.
17. Durability – The ability of concrete to resist weathering action, chemical attack, abrasion, and other conditions of service over a long period of time.
18. Formwork – A temporary construction to contain wet concrete in the required shape while it is cast and setting.
19. Flow table – A flat, circular jigging device used in making flow tests for consistency of cement paste, mortar or concrete.
20. Footing – A structural element that transmit that transmit load directly to the soil.
21. Fresh Concrete – Concrete that possesses enough of its original workability so that it can be placed and consolidated by the intended methods.
22. Inspection & Test Plan (ITP) – An inspection & Test Plan is the program of inspection and testing of materials, to be prepared and submitted by contractor.
23. Mortar – A mixture of cement paste and fine aggregates; in fresh concrete, the material occupying the interstices among particles of course aggregate; in masonry construction, joint mortar may contain masonry cement, or may contain hydraulic cement with lime (and possibly other admixtures) to afford greater plasticity and workability than are attainable with standard Portland cement mortar.
24. Pavement (concrete) – A layer of concrete on such areas as roads, sidewalks, canals, playgrounds, and those used for storage and parking.
25. Permeability – The property of porous material that permits a fluid (or gas) to pass through it.
26. Plumbness – It is verticality or alignment as measured with a plumb.
27. Pile Head Treatment – The treatment of the pile head to protect it from water.
28. Plaster – A cementitious material or combination of cementitious material and fine aggregate that, when mixed with suitable amount of water, forms a plastic mass or paste that when applied to a surface, adheres to it and subsequently hardens, preserving in a rigid state the form or texture imposed during the period of plasticity; also the placed and hardened mixture.
29. Reinforcement – Bars, wires, strand or any other slender member that are embedded in concrete in such a manner they and the concrete act together
30. Slump – A measure of consistency of freshly mixed concrete or mortar equal to the subsidence measured to the nearest 1/4 in. (6 mm) molded specimen immediately after removal of the slump cone.
31. Spacers – All chairs, blocks, supports and devices of a special nature required to hold the reinforcement in the correct position during concreting.
32. Structural concrete – A special type of concrete that is capable of carrying a structural load or forming an integral part of a structure.
33. Sub Base – A layer in a pavement system between the subgrade and the base course, or between the sub grade and a Portland – cement concrete pavement.
34. Water proofing – Treatment of concrete or mortar to retard the passage or absorption water, or water vapor, either by application of suitable coating to exposed surfaces, by use of suitable admixture or treated cement, or by use of performed film such as polyethelene sheet placed on grade before placing a slab.
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